Omdat de kou voorlopig nog lijkt aan te houden, verzamelde gezondNU tips om u te weren tegen het winterse weer.
Kleed u warm Zorg voor laagjeskleding; dus meerdere kledingstukken over elkaar. Zo bent u het best beschermd tegen de kou. Begin met een stof van natuurlijk materiaal, zodat u eventueel vocht kwijt kunt raken.
Last van koude handen ? Draag twee paar handschoenen over elkaar. Of kies voor handenwarmertjes, die u handen met een klik warm maken. Na gebruik tien minuten koken in water en ze kunnen opnieuw gebruikt worden.
Bedek uw hoofd Zo houdt uw uw lichaam nog beter op temperatuur.
Eet verse groenten en fruit Zo bouwt u extra weerstand op. Veel en vet eten heeft geen zin.
Beweeg Ook al is het koud, het bloed wordt op die manier goed door het lichaam gestuurd. Doe bijvoorbeeld stretchoefeningen. Zo worden de spieren opgewarmd en dat kan weer eventuele blessures voorkomen. Zorg wel dat u niet gaat zweten, dat kan weer onderkoeling als gevolg hebben.
Laat de borrel staan Sterkedrank geeft geen extra warmte, maar zorgt er juist voor dat het lichaam afkoelt. Het dehydrateert en verlaagt de lichaamstemperatuur.
Drink warme dranken Zo warmt u het lichaam van binnenuit op.
Zet de verwarming op minstens 16 graden Ouderen wordt aangeraden de temperatuur in de huiskamer op 22 tot 24 graden te houden. De slaapkamer op 20 graden. En ga niet te dicht bij de kachel zitten, zo ontstaan er te veel temperatuurschommelingen.
Kruip in bed dicht tegen elkaar aan Zo porfiteert u van elkaars warmte.
Failure to detect the novel retrovirus XMRV in chronic fatigue syndrome
Failure to detect the novel retrovirus XMRV in chronic fatigue syndrome
CFIDS Association statement : ' XMRV negative results emphasize need for robust replication study ' Dr Suzanne Vernon, scientific director - The CFIDS Association of America website, Tuesday, 05 January 2010
Suzanne D. Vernon, PhD, earned her doctorate in virology at the University of Wisconsin at Madison and worked in public health research on infectious diseases at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 17 years before joining the CFIDS Association of America’s staff as scientific director in 2007. She has more than 70 peer-reviewed scientific publications on topics including human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, cervical cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Dr. Vernon has initiated and participated in numerous international and multidisciplinary research collaborations and she now leads the CFIDS Association’s research program. The CFIDS Association of America is the nation’s largest philanthropic supporters of CFS research.
A study testing for evidence of XMRV infection in CFS patients in the United Kingdom has reported negative results. This is the first publication following the article in the top-ranked journal Sciencefrom researchers at the Whittemore Peterson Institute, the National Cancer Institute and Cleveland Clinic that garnered worldwide attention from the media and scientific community. The new report, published Jan. 6, 2010, in the open access online journal PLoS ONE, failed to detect XMRV in CFS, but should not be considered a valid attempt to replicate the findings described by Lombardi et al., in the Oct.8, 2009, Science article 'Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome' (1).
The PLoS ONE paper by Otto Erlwein, Steve Kaye, Myra O. McClure, Jonathan Weber, Gillian Wills, David Collier, Simon Wessely and Anthony Cleare is titled, “Failure to Detect the Novel Retrovirus XMRV in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome” (2). The investigators tested peripheral blood DNA from 186 routine clinic attendees who met 1994 (Fukuda) CFS case definition criteria and were well-characterized from participation in prior neuroendocrine and cognitive behavioral therapy studies. These 186 CFS patients were reported to be unwell for a median of four years with high levels of fatigue and disability.
This team of researchers used a special type of DNA “xeroxing” called nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify specific segments of the XMRV proviral DNA from the genomic DNA obtained from these 186 CFS subjects. In essence, they were looking to see if XMRV genetic material had integrated into human genetic material, which is a key characteristic of retroviral infection. The experiment included positive, negative and contamination controls, but did not test any samples taken from healthy subjects. The samples were coded so that the origin of the DNA was not known to the person conducting the PCR assays. XMRV was not detected in any of the 186 samples.
Can this study be considered comparable to the results published by Lombardi et al., in Science ?
In short, no. Both studies included CFS patients defined by the 1994 case definition criteria, but this is where the comparability ends. Here are some of the ways the PLoS ONE and Science methods differ :
the blood was collected from CFS patients in different types of blood collection tubes.
the genomic DNA was extracted and purified using different techniques.
the amount of genomic DNA included in the amplification assay was different.
different primer sequences were used that amplified different regions of the XMRV proviral DNA.
the conditions of the PCR amplification assay were different – from the numbers of cycles, to the type of polymerase used.
Should these differences affect an investigator’s ability to detect XMRV ?
To a microbiologist with experience handling samples and studying various infectious agents (as I am), these variances in procedure could make the difference between detecting XMRV or not.
It very well could be true that XMRV is not present in the U.K. as Erlwein et al. suggest in their discussion, but it is also possible that the technique used in the PLoS ONE paper was suboptimal due to the different methods employed, when compared to the original experiments conducted by Lombardi et al.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Blood XMRV Scientific Research Working Gropup is conducting a rigorous study to detect XMRV. Multiple laboratories will standardize methods to optimize sensitive detection of XMRV proviral DNA and viral RNA and then, once methods are standardized, these same laboratories will test coded panels of blood samples obtained from healthy blood donors and CFS patients. We look forward to the results of this study and urge that it be completed expeditiously, especially in light of this report from the U.K. In the meantime, be prepared to read about more studies with conflicting findings. Rather than simply accept or dismiss new information, we will help make sense of why discrepant results occur.
Perhaps the most important statement in the PLoS ONE paper is the acknowledgement by this group of investigators that CFS is an incapacitating organic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Once XMRV detection methods are optimized and made widely available, we encourage this group of researchers to take another look at XMRV as a possible explanation for the organic basis of CFS in the U.K.
Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome Vincent C. Lombardi,1,* Francis W. Ruscetti,2,* Jaydip Das Gupta,3 Max A. Pfost,1 Kathryn S. Hagen,1 Daniel L. Peterson,1 Sandra K. Ruscetti,4 Rachel K. Bagni,5 Cari Petrow-Sadowski,6 Bert Gold,2 Michael Dean,2 Robert H. Silverman,3 Judy A. Mikovits1 - 1 Whittemore Peterson Institute, Reno, NV 89557, USA - 2 Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, National Cancer Institute–Frederick, Frederick, MD 21701, USA - 3 Department of Cancer Biology, The Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA - 4 Laboratory of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute–Frederick, Frederick, MD 21701, USA - 5 Advanced Technology Program, National Cancer Institute–Frederick, Frederick, MD 21701, USA - 6 Basic Research Program, Scientific Applications International Corporation, National Cancer Institute–Frederick, Frederick, MD 21701, USA - * These authors contributed equally to this work - To whom correspondence should be addressed : email@example.com - Originally published in Science Express on 8 October 2009 - Science 23 October 2009:Vol. 326. no. 5952, pp. 585 – 589 Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology that is estimated to affect 17 million people worldwide. Studying peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CFS patients, we identified DNA from a human gammaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus (XMRV), in 68 of 101 patients (67%) as compared to 8 of 218 (3.7%) healthy controls. Cell culture experiments revealed that patient-derived XMRV is infectious and that both cell-associated and cell-free transmission of the virus are possible. Secondary viral infections were established in uninfected primary lymphocytes and indicator cell lines after their exposure to activated PBMCs, B cells, T cells or plasma derived from CFS patients. These findings raise the possibility that XMRV may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of CFS. Cfr. : - http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;326/5952/585 - http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1179052
A new virus for old diseases ? John M. Coffin1 and Jonathan P. Stoye2 - 1 Department of Molecular Microbiology, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA - 2 National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW4 1AA, UK – E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org - Originally published in Science Express on 8 October 2009, Science 23 October 2009:Vol. 326. no. 5952, pp. 530 – 531 There is little consensus in the medical community on whether chronic fatigue syndrome is a distinct disease. As its name implies, the condition is characterized by debilitating fatigue persisting for many years and it affects as much as 1% of the world's population. Although chronic inflammation is often found in these patients, no infectious or toxic agent has been clearly implicated in this disease, which is diagnosed largely by excluding other conditions that cause similar symptoms (cfr. 'Failure to detect the novel retrovirus XMRV in chronic fatigue syndrome ' at : http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008519 -). On page 585 of this issue, Lombardi et al. (cfr. 'Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome' : http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;326/5952/585 -) describe the detection of xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus (XMRV) in about two-thirds of patients diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome. Both laboratory and epidemiological studies are now needed to determine whether this virus has a causative role, not only in this disease, but perhaps in others as well. Cfr. : http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/sci;326/5952/530
I'm so tired - Is chronic fatigue syndrome caused by a retrovirus ? Jonathan Silver, MD - Journal Watch Psychiatry December 14, 2009 - Covering Science 2009 Oct 23; 326:585 Researchers find a promising association but not causation — at least not yet. Cfr. : http://psychiatry.jwatch.org/cgi/content/citation/2009/1214/4